The Virtue of Failure

By: Polly Britton
Project Engineer, Product Design

25th June 2019

3 minute read

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The Virtues of Failure

In order to innovate, we must accept the possibility of failure. Since the vast majority of inventions and ideas are doomed to fail, failure is inevitable, even for the most successful companies. And yet, businesses try to hide their mistakes in an attempt to appear perfect in the public eye. I started thinking about this when I heard about the Museum of Failure in Sweden, which exhibits the products invented by companies that their customer-base didn’t want, and certainly wouldn’t pay for.

Being ashamed of our mistakes may be a natural human behaviour, or it might be cultural, but there are times when it is advantageous to embrace failure.

Toyota’s Andon Cords

On Toyota’s factory floor, the cars are assembled on a conveyor belt, lined with employees assembling the cars bit-by-bit as they go past on the assembly line. Each employee on the assembly line has a big yellow button at arms-reach, which they are taught to push every time they detect a problem with the assembly. When pushed, the button alerts the rest of the team, bringing their attention to the issue immediately.

In earlier days of Toyota’s manufacturing, there were ropes hanging above the assembly line that served this function, called “Andon cords”. Pulling the cord halted the conveyor, bringing all work to a complete stop until the problem was solved. Although it might sound like a waste of time, it actually increased Toyota’s efficiency and the technique was adopted by other auto manufacturers.

Toyota keeps track of the number of times the button/cord is used each day. When the rate of alarms decreases it is considered a serious problem since it indicates the employees are not being observant enough.

“A stitch in time saves nine”

It’s much easier to solve problems when you to attend to them as early as possible. But to attend to problems, you have to acknowledge their existence, which sometimes means admitting to a mistake. If it’s your own mistake you’re likely to feel ashamed of it, and if it’s someone else’s mistake you may feel guilty about pointing it out and embarrassing them. That reaction is natural but somewhat irrational; we all make mistakes, and everyone knows that. It’s easy to forgive a mistake if you can catch it early, but it’s harder to forgive later when the damage is already done.

Product Design

In the world of product design, each new project is an opportunity to make many mistakes. The project itself might even be a mistake, as was the case for many exhibits in the Museum of Failure. As designers and engineers, it’s important, to be honest about our mistakes and the mistakes of our peers – even our superiors. Our projects might benefit greatly from a culture of forgiveness where we feel less ashamed of admitting to mistakes, or maybe even a culture like Toyota’s where detecting problems is encouraged and a lack of problems is looked on with suspicion.

The Virtues of Failure

In order to innovate, we must accept the possibility of failure. Since the vast majority of inventions and ideas are doomed to fail, failure is inevitable, even for the most successful companies. And yet, businesses try to hide their mistakes in an attempt to appear perfect in the public eye. I started thinking about this when I heard about the Museum of Failure in Sweden, which exhibits the products invented by companies that their customer-base didn’t want, and certainly wouldn’t pay for.

Being ashamed of our mistakes may be a natural human behaviour, or it might be cultural, but there are times when it is advantageous to embrace failure.

Toyota’s Andon Cords

On Toyota’s factory floor, the cars are assembled on a conveyor belt, lined with employees assembling the cars bit-by-bit as they go past on the assembly line. Each employee on the assembly line has a big yellow button at arms-reach, which they are taught to push every time they detect a problem with the assembly. When pushed, the button alerts the rest of the team, bringing their attention to the issue immediately.

In earlier days of Toyota’s manufacturing, there were ropes hanging above the assembly line that served this function, called “Andon cords”. Pulling the cord halted the conveyor, bringing all work to a complete stop until the problem was solved. Although it might sound like a waste of time, it actually increased Toyota’s efficiency and the technique was adopted by other auto manufacturers.

Toyota keeps track of the number of times the button/cord is used each day. When the rate of alarms decreases it is considered a serious problem since it indicates the employees are not being observant enough.

“A stitch in time saves nine”

It’s much easier to solve problems when you to attend to them as early as possible. But to attend to problems, you have to acknowledge their existence, which sometimes means admitting to a mistake. If it’s your own mistake you’re likely to feel ashamed of it, and if it’s someone else’s mistake you may feel guilty about pointing it out and embarrassing them. That reaction is natural but somewhat irrational; we all make mistakes, and everyone knows that. It’s easy to forgive a mistake if you can catch it early, but it’s harder to forgive later when the damage is already done.

Product Design

In the world of product design, each new project is an opportunity to make many mistakes. The project itself might even be a mistake, as was the case for many exhibits in the Museum of Failure. As designers and engineers, it’s important, to be honest about our mistakes and the mistakes of our peers – even our superiors. Our projects might benefit greatly from a culture of forgiveness where we feel less ashamed of admitting to mistakes, or maybe even a culture like Toyota’s where detecting problems is encouraged and a lack of problems is looked on with suspicion.

Generating innovative ideas

The use of Technology in Farming

By: Edson DaSilva
Project Engineer

11th June 2019

3 minute read

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The use of technology in farming is not a new subject, and over the years many have predicted that this technology or that gadget would revolutionise the industry, but that’s yet to happen. Make no mistake; farming now is significantly different from what it was like 20 years ago, and technology is widely used in the industry now. From the use of GPS Systems to automate machinery to the more recent adoption of drones for tasks such as crop surveying. However, the uptake has not been rapid and revolutionary, but rather a gradual and steady evolution. Some would argue that farmers are at fault, due to their resistance to progress and disinclination to try new technology. I struggle to buy into that. Whilst I can believe that this is true for a handful of individuals, innovators must take some responsibility too. I am persuaded that all too often those at the forefront of technological innovation fail to fully grasp the very real and relevant concerns expressed by prospective end-users. This in turn yields solutions that fail to meet the basic requirements needed for widespread uptake.

I recently attended two events which reinforced some those views, namely Drones for Farming Conference and Sensing for Economic & Production Gains in Agriculture. In particular, these two things that stayed with me looking back:

1. Data is only as valuable as the decisions it enables

In recent years we have become obsessed with data, the more the better some would argue. And with the spread of AI, this trend is set to continue. Whilst data can indeed be a very powerful tool, it needs to enable decision making for it to yield results. The following simple, but effective example illustrates this point. A drone that flies over a field and takes pictures of crops is of little use to a farmer. But if the pictures can be strategically taken such that an agronomist can inspect areas of a field that are not easily accessible it becomes more useful. Better still, if the software can use image recognition and data processing to advise the agronomist about potential diseases, at an early stage such that preventive action can be taken before it is too late, it becomes a very useful tool.

2. UAVs are not only for crops

One of the stories that really caught my attention was the use of a UAV to herd livestock. Wojtek Behnke, a farmer and tech enthusiast wanted to see if he could use UAVs to speed up the process of rounding up sheep. He started off by simply using the sound of the vehicle to steer the flock (similar to the fashion used with a sheepdog), and his initial results were impressive. But over time the flock became more and more accustomed to the sound, to the point where he could fly the vehicle within metres of them and they would not move. At this point, he switched his strategy and adopted a positive reinforcement behaviour approach. Instead of trying to scare the flock he started to persuade them to follow the UAV in the hope of gaining a reward, in this case, feed.
After a slow start, he managed to ‘teach’ the sheep to associate the sound of the UAV to food. The results were astonishing. He successfully ushered the flock through a number of difficult and tricky obstacles and into the desired location using only a UAV. Wojtek’s experience as a shepherd and his knowledge about the animal’s behaviour was vital in recognising the need to change the approaches.

As our population grows and our demand for food increases, there will have to be a paradigm shift in how food is produced. Affordability will continue to be a pressing demand, but sustainability is just as important, especially given the growing concerns about climate change. Technology will no doubt play a big part in it, but the size of its impact and the speed at which it happens will be dictated by how well technologist and producers collaborate.

The use of technology in farming is not a new subject, and over the years many have predicted that this technology or that gadget would revolutionise the industry, but that’s yet to happen. Make no mistake; farming now is significantly different from what it was like 20 years ago, and technology is widely used in the industry now. From the use of GPS Systems to automate machinery to the more recent adoption of drones for tasks such as crop surveying. However, the uptake has not been rapid and revolutionary, but rather a gradual and steady evolution. Some would argue that farmers are at fault, due to their resistance to progress and disinclination to try new technology. I struggle to buy into that. Whilst I can believe that this is true for a handful of individuals, innovators must take some responsibility too. I am persuaded that all too often those at the forefront of technological innovation fail to fully grasp the very real and relevant concerns expressed by prospective end-users. This in turn yields solutions that fail to meet the basic requirements needed for widespread uptake.

I recently attended two events which reinforced some those views, namely Drones for Farming Conference and Sensing for Economic & Production Gains in Agriculture. In particular, these two things that stayed with me looking back:

1. Data is only as valuable as the decisions it enables

In recent years we have become obsessed with data, the more the better some would argue. And with the spread of AI, this trend is set to continue. Whilst data can indeed be a very powerful tool, it needs to enable decision making for it to yield results. The following simple, but effective example illustrates this point. A drone that flies over a field and takes pictures of crops is of little use to a farmer. But if the pictures can be strategically taken such that an agronomist can inspect areas of a field that are not easily accessible it becomes more useful. Better still, if the software can use image recognition and data processing to advise the agronomist about potential diseases, at an early stage such that preventive action can be taken before it is too late, it becomes a very useful tool.

2. UAVs are not only for crops

One of the stories that really caught my attention was the use of a UAV to herd livestock. Wojtek Behnke, a farmer and tech enthusiast wanted to see if he could use UAVs to speed up the process of rounding up sheep. He started off by simply using the sound of the vehicle to steer the flock (similar to the fashion used with a sheepdog), and his initial results were impressive. But over time the flock became more and more accustomed to the sound, to the point where he could fly the vehicle within metres of them and they would not move. At this point, he switched his strategy and adopted a positive reinforcement behaviour approach. Instead of trying to scare the flock he started to persuade them to follow the UAV in the hope of gaining a reward, in this case, feed.

After a slow start, he managed to ‘teach’ the sheep to associate the sound of the UAV to food. The results were astonishing. He successfully ushered the flock through a number of difficult and tricky obstacles and into the desired location using only a UAV. Wojtek’s experience as a shepherd and his knowledge about the animal’s behaviour was vital in recognising the need to change the approaches.

As our population grows and our demand for food increases, there will have to be a paradigm shift in how food is produced. Affordability will continue to be a pressing demand, but sustainability is just as important, especially given the growing concerns about climate change. Technology will no doubt play a big part in it, but the size of its impact and the speed at which it happens will be dictated by how well technologist and producers collaborate.

How to Harvest Infinite Power!

Henry Wadsworth

By: Henry Wadsworth
Project Engineer

9th May 2019

6 minute read

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Wouldn’t it be amazing if an electronic device could run forever, for free, on an unlimited supply of energy? No batteries to replace and no plug socket to be tethered to. This might seem like a flight of fancy, but with modern energy harvesting techniques, it is a much more realisable dream.

Energy harvesting is the capture and storage of energy from the environment which can be used to power an electronic device. This is not a new idea, we are all familiar with the idea of using solar panels to charge a battery, but there are many other energy sources to take advantage of such as kinetic, thermal, and electromagnetic energy. Kinetic energy such as that produced by wind can easily be harvested using a turbine, but even vibrations can be converted into a voltage using a piezo-electric transducer so any form of movement has the potential to power electronics. Thermal energy can be converted into electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) which is able to produce energy from heat which would normally be lost to the environment. Electromagnetic energy is present all around us, for example, in the form of radio waves and microwaves which we rely on for wireless communications from WIFI to FM radio. In most circumstances this amount of energy is so small that it cannot readily be captured and stored, however, if a device is located within a reasonable distance of a powerful transmitter, it is possible to provide enough energy to keep a low-power device alive.

This is especially the case with modern integrated circuits designed for power harvesting which are enabling increasingly tiny amounts of energy to be gradually accumulated over time in a battery, or super-capacitor in order to power a low-power device almost indefinitely while the energy source is present. In many cases it is also possible to combine multiple energy harvesting sources, which can be useful in environments where the energy sources may be changing, such as if the device is moving through different environments. For example, solar could be combined with piezo-electric, so that the device can harvest sunlight when the sun is visible, and vibration energy when the device is being moved (perhaps the device is worn by a human, or transported on a vehicle).

Energy harvesting typically refers to small scale harvesting of energy as described above, however, larger power sources can also be harnessed. For example, the power flowing through a cable can be harnessed by placing a current transformer around the cable. We recently developed a system using this technology to supply energy in an underground environment where no other power supply was reliably available. This can be a useful way of retro-fitting a device where power cables already exist, but with no other convenient way to tap the energy from the cables. This method has the potential to supply large amounts of power to a device, depending on the amount of current flowing through the cables.

Energy harvesting is a particularly valuable technique for circumstances where it is not possible to carry out maintenance on a device to replace a battery. For example, the device may be inaccessible or just impractical and expensive to access if there are a large number of devices – which is likely to become an increasingly significant problem as inexpensive IOT devices are used for large monitoring networks.

Energy harvesting techniques are becoming increasingly sophisticated which, coupled with a low power microprocessor makes it possible to power devices with energy sources which previously would be considered impractical.

Wouldn’t it be amazing if an electronic device could run forever, for free, on an unlimited supply of energy? No batteries to replace and no plug socket to be tethered to. This might seem like a flight of fancy, but with modern energy harvesting techniques, it is a much more realisable dream.

Energy harvesting is the capture and storage of energy from the environment which can be used to power an electronic device. This is not a new idea, we are all familiar with the idea of using solar panels to charge a battery, but there are many other energy sources to take advantage of such as kinetic, thermal, and electromagnetic energy. Kinetic energy such as that produced by wind can easily be harvested using a turbine, but even vibrations can be converted into a voltage using a piezo-electric transducer so any form of movement has the potential to power electronics. Thermal energy can be converted into electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) which is able to produce energy from heat which would normally be lost to the environment. Electromagnetic energy is present all around us, for example, in the form of radio waves and microwaves which we rely on for wireless communications from WIFI to FM radio. In most circumstances this amount of energy is so small that it cannot readily be captured and stored, however, if a device is located within a reasonable distance of a powerful transmitter, it is possible to provide enough energy to keep a low-power device alive.

This is especially the case with modern integrated circuits designed for power harvesting which are enabling increasingly tiny amounts of energy to be gradually accumulated over time in a battery, or super-capacitor in order to power a low-power device almost indefinitely while the energy source is present. In many cases it is also possible to combine multiple energy harvesting sources, which can be useful in environments where the energy sources may be changing, such as if the device is moving through different environments. For example, solar could be combined with piezo-electric, so that the device can harvest sunlight when the sun is visible, and vibration energy when the device is being moved (perhaps the device is worn by a human, or transported on a vehicle).

Energy harvesting typically refers to small scale harvesting of energy as described above, however, larger power sources can also be harnessed. For example, the power flowing through a cable can be harnessed by placing a current transformer around the cable. We recently developed a system using this technology to supply energy in an underground environment where no other power supply was reliably available. This can be a useful way of retro-fitting a device where power cables already exist, but with no other convenient way to tap the energy from the cables. This method has the potential to supply large amounts of power to a device, depending on the amount of current flowing through the cables.

Energy harvesting is a particularly valuable technique for circumstances where it is not possible to carry out maintenance on a device to replace a battery. For example, the device may be inaccessible or just impractical and expensive to access if there are a large number of devices – which is likely to become an increasingly significant problem as inexpensive IOT devices are used for large monitoring networks.

Energy harvesting techniques are becoming increasingly sophisticated which, coupled with a low power microprocessor makes it possible to power devices with energy sources which previously would be considered impractical.

Making a LiDAR – Part 5

Unity Point Cloud Rendering

By: David
Principal Consultant, Data Exploration

12th April 2019

4 minute read

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Unity Point Cloud Rendering

Now we’ve got our LIDAR finished, and our first scan completed, we are left with an SD card with some data on it. The data is a list of several million points (called a point cloud) represented in polar spherical coordinates. Each point represents a target distance from the centre of the LIDAR scan. In its own right, this isn’t very exciting, so we need to find a way to visualise the data. Quite a few people have contacted me to ask how I did this, so unlike the previous “philosophical” LIDAR blogs, this one will go into a little more technical detail. So, if you’re not interested in driving 3D rendering engines, then skip the text and go straight to the video!

I’ve chosen to use the Unity game engine, and this is a software tool targeted at creating 3D video games. It handles the maths and graphics of 3D rendering, it provides a user interface for configuring the 3D world, and it uses the C# programming language for the developer to add “game logic”. If you know Unity, this blog should give you enough information to render a point cloud.

An object in the Unity world is called a GameObject, and each game object represents a “thing” that we can see in the 3D world. We also need to create a camera, and this gives the user the view of the 3D world. It’s straight forward enough to write some C# code that moves and rotates the camera in accordance with mouse and keyboard input. If we fill the world with GameObjects, and we move the camera through the world, then Unity takes care of the rest.

A GameObject is made of a 3D mesh of points to define its shape. The mesh can be anything from a complicated shape like a person, to a simple geometrical shape like a sphere. The developer needs to define a Material which is rendered on the GameObject surface, and a Shader to determine how the Material surface responds to light.

The obvious way to render the LIDAR data is to create a sphere GameObject for each LIDAR data point. This produces wonderful 3D images, and as the user moves through the point cloud each element is rendered as a beautifully shaded sphere. Unfortunately, because each sphere translates into many points of a 3D Mesh, and because we have several million LIDAR data points, that’s a huge amount of work for the computer to get through. The end result is a very slow frame rate which isn’t suitable for real time. For video generation, I configured Unity to generate frames offline, but 1/24th of a second apart in game time. The result is a series of images that can be stitched together to make a fluid video sequence.

I thought it would be fun to view the LIDAR world through the Oculus Rift headset, but here we require very high frame rates so offline rendering isn’t going to work. Rather than plotting each LIDAR point as a GameObject, I used a series of LIDAR points (about 60k worth) to define a single Mesh to make one GameObject. The GameObject then takes the shape defined by the 60K set of scanned LIDAR points. The GameObject Mesh requires a custom Shader to render its surface as transparent, and each Mesh vertices as a flat 2D disk. This allows us to reduce the number of GameObjects by a factor of 60K with a massive drop in CPU workload. The total number of GameObjects is then the number of LIDAR data points divided by 60K. The downside is that we lose the shading on each LIDAR data point. From a distance that still looks great, but if the user moves close to a LIDAR point the image is not quite so good. The advantage is a frame rate fast enough for virtual reality.

As a final node, it is quite a surreal experience to scan an area, and then view it in virtual reality through the Oculus Rift headset. It is quite the shame that the reader can only see the 2D video renders. The best way I can describe it is analogues to stepping into the Matrix to visit Morpheus and Neo!

Now we’ve got our LIDAR finished, and our first scan completed, we are left with an SD card with some data on it. The data is a list of several million points (called a point cloud) represented in polar spherical coordinates. Each point represents a target distance from the centre of the LIDAR scan. In its own right, this isn’t very exciting, so we need to find a way to visualise the data. Quite a few people have contacted me to ask how I did this, so unlike the previous “philosophical” LIDAR blogs, this one will go into a little more technical detail. So, if you’re not interested in driving 3D rendering engines, then skip the text and go straight to the video!

I’ve chosen to use the Unity game engine, and this is a software tool targeted at creating 3D video games. It handles the maths and graphics of 3D rendering, it provides a user interface for configuring the 3D world, and it uses the C# programming language for the developer to add “game logic”. If you know Unity, this blog should give you enough information to render a point cloud.

An object in the Unity world is called a GameObject, and each game object represents a “thing” that we can see in the 3D world. We also need to create a camera, and this gives the user the view of the 3D world. It’s straight forward enough to write some C# code that moves and rotates the camera in accordance with mouse and keyboard input. If we fill the world with GameObjects, and we move the camera through the world, then Unity takes care of the rest.

A GameObject is made of a 3D mesh of points to define its shape. The mesh can be anything from a complicated shape like a person, to a simple geometrical shape like a sphere. The developer needs to define a Material which is rendered on the GameObject surface, and a Shader to determine how the Material surface responds to light.

The obvious way to render the LIDAR data is to create a sphere GameObject for each LIDAR data point. This produces wonderful 3D images, and as the user moves through the point cloud each element is rendered as a beautifully shaded sphere. Unfortunately, because each sphere translates into many points of a 3D Mesh, and because we have several million LIDAR data points, that’s a huge amount of work for the computer to get through. The end result is a very slow frame rate which isn’t suitable for real time. For video generation, I configured Unity to generate frames offline, but 1/24th of a second apart in game time. The result is a series of images that can be stitched together to make a fluid video sequence.

I thought it would be fun to view the LIDAR world through the Oculus Rift headset, but here we require very high frame rates so offline rendering isn’t going to work. Rather than plotting each LIDAR point as a GameObject, I used a series of LIDAR points (about 60k worth) to define a single Mesh to make one GameObject. The GameObject then takes the shape defined by the 60K set of scanned LIDAR points. The GameObject Mesh requires a custom Shader to render its surface as transparent, and each Mesh vertices as a flat 2D disk. This allows us to reduce the number of GameObjects by a factor of 60K with a massive drop in CPU workload. The total number of GameObjects is then the number of LIDAR data points divided by 60K. The downside is that we lose the shading on each LIDAR data point. From a distance that still looks great, but if the user moves close to a LIDAR point the image is not quite so good. The advantage is a frame rate fast enough for virtual reality.

As a final node, it is quite a surreal experience to scan an area, and then view it in virtual reality through the Oculus Rift headset. It is quite the shame that the reader can only see the 2D video renders. The best way I can describe it is analogues to stepping into the Matrix to visit Morpheus and Neo!

Making a LiDAR – Part 4

Electronics Prototyping, and getting a graduate job at Plextek

By: David
Principal Consultant, Data Exploration

11th April 2019

3 minute read

Home » Insights » Engineering » Page 2

Electronics Prototyping, and getting a graduate job at Plextek

Since I first picked up a soldering iron I’d say there have been two significant changes in electronics; the parts have got smaller, and my eyesight has got worse. With the advent of surface mount, I did fear we were entering an educational dark age. It became beyond the scope of the hobbyist to create PCBs and solder the parts. Luckily, I think all that’s changed, and there has never been a better time for both commercial prototyping and hobbyist experimentation.

As I described in the previous blog, I’m very much a fan of the STM32 platform, and ST Microelectronics have produced some terrific prototyping boards. In fact, the same is true for every major player in the microcontroller market. All these boards have in common low cost and bring out fine pitch surface mount packages to user-friendly headers.

For around £10 I can visit RS components, and buy a very capable STM32 prototyping board with all of the microcontroller’s features our LIDAR will need. With the addition of a few breakout boards, we can test and prototype all the electronics for our LIDAR without ever having to touch a soldering iron or make a PCB.

We do still have one problem, and that’s because our initial prototype can end up a bit of a mess. All those prototype and breakout boards can leave a “rats nest” of wires, it’s fragile, and it’s probably too big. Luckily, rapid and low-cost PCB production has also come a long way. We’ll take advantage of this for our LIDAR electronics.

A quick visit to one of the far Eastern PCB prototyping houses shows I can get 10 copies of a small custom two-layer PCB for $5 plus shipping. Pushing to 4 layers and it’s only $49 plus shipping. I really have no idea how they make it commercially viable! If you’re concerned about quality and security, a European PCB house isn’t that much more expensive. Of course, you still have to design and solder the PCB, but with a copy of Eagle, a visit to YouTube, a low-cost USB microscope, and a rework gun, you’d be surprised how easy it is. Surface tension is your friend!

So what’s my message from this Blog? Well, over the years I’ve become more and more involved with graduate recruitment, and it’s often a long and frustrating process. I’ve become very impressed by the extent of knowledge and understanding our young potential recruits have, but they generally are not so confident about demonstrating these abilities. So, if you’re keen on a career in embedded electronics, then my challenge to you is to get yourself noticed. Buy yourself some prototyping boards, build some embedded projects, and look on the internet to find out how to do it. Bring them with you to your interview, and show us what you’ve done. I promise if you do that, you will stand head and shoulders above the crowd.

Since I first picked up a soldering iron I’d say there have been two significant changes in electronics; the parts have got smaller, and my eyesight has got worse. With the advent of surface mount, I did fear we were entering an educational dark age. It became beyond the scope of the hobbyist to create PCBs and solder the parts. Luckily, I think all that’s changed, and there has never been a better time for both commercial prototyping and hobbyist experimentation.

As I described in the previous blog, I’m very much a fan of the STM32 platform, and ST Microelectronics have produced some terrific prototyping boards. In fact, the same is true for every major player in the microcontroller market. All these boards have in common low cost and bring out fine pitch surface mount packages to user-friendly headers.

For around £10 I can visit RS components, and buy a very capable STM32 prototyping board with all of the microcontroller’s features our LIDAR will need. With the addition of a few breakout boards, we can test and prototype all the electronics for our LIDAR without ever having to touch a soldering iron or make a PCB.

We do still have one problem, and that’s because our initial prototype can end up a bit of a mess. All those prototype and breakout boards can leave a “rats nest” of wires, it’s fragile, and it’s probably too big. Luckily, rapid and low-cost PCB production has also come a long way. We’ll take advantage of this for our LIDAR electronics.

A quick visit to one of the far Eastern PCB prototyping houses shows I can get 10 copies of a small custom two-layer PCB for $5 plus shipping. Pushing to 4 layers and it’s only $49 plus shipping. I really have no idea how they make it commercially viable! If you’re concerned about quality and security, a European PCB house isn’t that much more expensive. Of course, you still have to design and solder the PCB, but with a copy of Eagle, a visit to YouTube, a low-cost USB microscope, and a rework gun, you’d be surprised how easy it is. Surface tension is your friend!

So what’s my message from this Blog? Well, over the years I’ve become more and more involved with graduate recruitment, and it’s often a long and frustrating process. I’ve become very impressed by the extent of knowledge and understanding our young potential recruits have, but they generally are not so confident about demonstrating these abilities. So, if you’re keen on a career in embedded electronics, then my challenge to you is to get yourself noticed. Buy yourself some prototyping boards, build some embedded projects, and look on the internet to find out how to do it. Bring them with you to your interview, and show us what you’ve done. I promise if you do that, you will stand head and shoulders above the crowd.