Baking and engineering

How Baking Is Valuable for Engineering Projects

By: Beate Muller
Project Engineer

7th November 2019

4 minute read

Home » Innovation » Page 2

Being an engineer by trade and a baker by night (or rather weekend) the colleagues here at Plextek are happy to find some kind of bake in the office most Mondays. From layer cakes to chocolates and macarons, biscuits to croissants and choux buns, I really try to make the best of my baking skills each weekend. While this helped me climb the social ladder within the office pretty quickly, with everyone raving about the latest creation, I am sure the principles I use while baking can also translate to the engineering world.

I love to challenge myself so my baking normally consists of several different parts. As an easy example, think of a layer cake with several layers of baked sponge, with layers of filling and decorations on top.

Prepare

At first, it is important to define the specifications and clarify what the final outcome will be, ie: a delicious cake and what the work requirements are to get there (bake layers, make the filling, make decorations, assemble).

Next, it is important to define both the project plan and budget. For the project plan, it is necessary to analyse the work requirements and determine which ones can be done simultaneously and where they need to be completed successively. The filling can be made while the cake layers are baking in the oven, but on the other hand, the assembly of the cake can only start when all other parts are completed.

Making the budget involves checking the resources needed for each part of this project (the ingredients and tools) and checking how much of it is already available.

Meet

At the start of the project, a kick-off meeting brings all team members together and clarifies the vision for the job. While I don’t bake in a team, it is still necessary to have some kind of kick-off. This means getting all the ingredients ready and reading the recipe so that I am aware of what I am about to do.

Meetings are also important during the course of a project so that progress can be reported back to the project manager and to determine if both the budget and plan are still up to date. During the baking project, it will be necessary to read the recipe again to make sure all steps are executed correctly and to be clear about the tasks ahead.

Work Methodically

The execution of an engineering project depends on the methodical and precise work the engineers are doing. Baking is a science, therefore working precisely is very important in that case as well. It is crucial that the ingredients are at the right temperature and that they are added in the right order.

Adapt

During the project, complications can emerge that were not planned for. It is important to be flexible to be able to cope in these situations and find a workaround or change the schedule to continue working towards the desired outcome. If the filling for the cake doesn’t set well at room temperature it will be necessary to put the cake in the fridge for a while. The schedule will need to be adjusted in this case.

Enjoy the result

After a successful project, it is important to enjoy the results and celebrate the achievements. After all, who doesn’t love cake?

Even if the project doesn’t go as planned, it is important to learn lessons from it. One time I wanted to make a cake with a lot of colourful sprinkles in it but the sprinkles lost their colour and I ended up with a green cake! Now I know to purchase a different brand of sprinkles and not to handle the dough too much after adding the sprinkles.

Challenge yourself

After you have enjoyed the rewards of this project it is important to get excited for the next one coming up. There are always exciting things to bake and to engineer and I can’t wait for both of them!

Being an engineer by trade and a baker by night (or rather weekend) the colleagues here at Plextek are happy to find some kind of bake in the office most Mondays. From layer cakes to chocolates and macarons, biscuits to croissants and choux buns, I really try to make the best of my baking skills each weekend. While this helped me climb the social ladder within the office pretty quickly, with everyone raving about the latest creation, I am sure the principles I use while baking can also translate to the engineering world.

I love to challenge myself so my baking normally consists of several different parts. As an easy example, think of a layer cake with several layers of baked sponge, with layers of filling and decorations on top.

Prepare

At first, it is important to define the specifications and clarify what the final outcome will be, ie: a delicious cake and what the work requirements are to get there (bake layers, make the filling, make decorations, assemble).

Next, it is important to define both the project plan and budget. For the project plan, it is necessary to analyse the work requirements and determine which ones can be done simultaneously and where they need to be completed successively. The filling can be made while the cake layers are baking in the oven, but on the other hand, the assembly of the cake can only start when all other parts are completed.

Making the budget involves checking the resources needed for each part of this project (the ingredients and tools) and checking how much of it is already available.

Meet

At the start of the project, a kick-off meeting brings all team members together and clarifies the vision for the job. While I don’t bake in a team, it is still necessary to have some kind of kick-off. This means getting all the ingredients ready and reading the recipe so that I am aware of what I am about to do.

Meetings are also important during the course of a project so that progress can be reported back to the project manager and to determine if both the budget and plan are still up to date. During the baking project, it will be necessary to read the recipe again to make sure all steps are executed correctly and to be clear about the tasks ahead.

Work Methodically

The execution of an engineering project depends on the methodical and precise work the engineers are doing. Baking is a science, therefore working precisely is very important in that case as well. It is crucial that the ingredients are at the right temperature and that they are added in the right order.

Adapt

During the project, complications can emerge that were not planned for. It is important to be flexible to be able to cope in these situations and find a workaround or change the schedule to continue working towards the desired outcome. If the filling for the cake doesn’t set well at room temperature it will be necessary to put the cake in the fridge for a while. The schedule will need to be adjusted in this case.

Enjoy the result

After a successful project, it is important to enjoy the results and celebrate the achievements. After all, who doesn’t love cake?

Even if the project doesn’t go as planned, it is important to learn lessons from it. One time I wanted to make a cake with a lot of colourful sprinkles in it but the sprinkles lost their colour and I ended up with a green cake! Now I know to purchase a different brand of sprinkles and not to handle the dough too much after adding the sprinkles.

Challenge yourself

After you have enjoyed the rewards of this project it is important to get excited for the next one coming up. There are always exciting things to bake and to engineer and I can’t wait for both of them!

What Is 5G and How Does It Work?

By: Daniel Tomlinson
Project Engineer

18th July 2019

5 minute read

Home » Innovation » Page 2

As a society that is becoming increasingly dependent on data driven applications, 5G promises to provide better connectivity and faster speeds for our network devices. However, whilst the previous generations of mobile communications have been fairly analogous to each other in terms of distribution and multiple user access, 5G will be drastically different – making it a challenging system to implement. So, how does it work?

Initial Concept

Enhanced Mobile, Massive iot, low latency, the 5G Triangle
Fig 1 – The 5G Triangle

 

As with any concept, 5G was initially based on a very broad and ambiguous set of standards, which promised low latency, speeds in the region of Gbps and better connectivity. Whilst no intricacies of the system were known at the time, we knew that in order to achieve faster data rates and larger bandwidths we would have to move to higher frequencies – and this is where the problem occurs. Due to the severe amounts of atmospheric attenuation that’s experienced by high frequency signals, range and power become serious issues that our current systems aren’t capable of handling.

Range & Power

A modern GSM tower features multiple cellular base stations, that together, are designed to transmit 360⁰ horizontally and at a range in the order of tens of miles, depending on the terrain. However, if you were to consider that the received power transmitted from a cellular base station degrades with distance at a rate of…

And that by factoring in frequency, this effect worsens…

…it becomes obvious that transmitting over larger distances and at higher frequencies becomes exponentially inefficient. Therefore, a key part of the 5G overhaul would require thousands of miniature base stations to be strategically placed in dense, urban environments in order to maximise capacity with minimal obstructions.

Directivity

5G Radiation pattern
Fig 2 – Radiation Pattern of an Isotropic Antenna versus an Antenna with Gain (Dipole)

 

One way to increase the range of a transceiver, whilst keeping the power output the same, is to incorporate gain into the antenna. This is achieved by focusing the transmitted power towards a particular point as opposed to equally in all directions (isotropic).

Figure 1 shows such a comparison, in which, a dipole antenna’s energy is being focused in the direction of 180 and 0 degrees. Equation three reflects this additional factor:

However, as the essence of a wireless handset is portability, it is likely to move around a lot with the user. Therefore, a high gain 5G transmitter would still require a tracking system to ensure that it stays focused directly at the end user’s handset.

User Tracking

One solution for tracking devices could be to employ a high frequency transceiver with a phased array antenna structure. This would act as a typical base station, capable of transmitting and receiving, but an array of hundreds of small scale patch antennas (and some DSP magic) would make it capable of beamforming. This would not only allow the structure to transmit high gain signals but to also steer the beam by changing the relative phase of the output.

However, as this is a technically complex system that has yet to be implemented on such a large scale, the technology is still in its infancy and is currently being trialled in select areas only. Considerable efforts will have to be made to ensure that such a transceiver could operate in a bustling environment where multipath and body-blocking would cause strong interference.

5G in 2019

3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project) is an organisation that was established in 1998 and helped to produce the original standards for 3G. It has since gone on to produce the specs for 4G, LTE and is currently working to achieve a 5G “ready system” in 2020.

With certain service carriers already having released 5G this year in certain parts of America, 2019 will be welcoming numerous 5G handsets from several of the flagships giants like Samsung, LG, Huawei and even Xiaomi – a budget smartphone manufacturer.

As with previous generations though, only limited coverage will be available at first (and at a hefty premium), but in practice, it will be fairly similar to Wi-Fi hot-spotting. A lot of work is still required to overcome the issues as discussed above.

As a society that is becoming increasingly dependent on data driven applications, 5G promises to provide better connectivity and faster speeds for our network devices. However, whilst the previous generations of mobile communications have been fairly analogous to each other in terms of distribution and multiple user access, 5G will be drastically different – making it a challenging system to implement. So, how does it work?

Initial Concept

Enhanced Mobile, Massive iot, low latency, the 5G Triangle
Fig 1 – The 5G Triangle

As with any concept, 5G was initially based on a very broad and ambiguous set of standards, which promised low latency, speeds in the region of Gbps and better connectivity. Whilst no intricacies of the system were known at the time, we knew that in order to achieve faster data rates and larger bandwidths we would have to move to higher frequencies – and this is where the problem occurs. Due to the severe amounts of atmospheric attenuation that’s experienced by high frequency signals, range and power become serious issues that our current systems aren’t capable of handling.

Range & Power

A modern GSM tower features multiple cellular base stations, that together, are designed to transmit 360⁰ horizontally and at a range in the order of tens of miles, depending on the terrain. However, if you were to consider that the received power transmitted from a cellular base station degrades with distance at a rate of…

And that by factoring in frequency, this effect worsens…

…it becomes obvious that transmitting over larger distances and at higher frequencies becomes exponentially inefficient. Therefore, a key part of the 5G overhaul would require thousands of miniature base stations to be strategically placed in dense, urban environments in order to maximise capacity with minimal obstructions.

Directivity

5G Radiation pattern
Fig 2 – Radiation Pattern of an Isotropic Antenna versus an Antenna with Gain (Dipole)

One way to increase the range of a transceiver, whilst keeping the power output the same, is to incorporate gain in to the antenna. This is achieved by focusing the transmitted power towards a particular point as opposed to equally in all directions (isotropic).

Figure 1 shows such a comparison, in which, a dipole antenna’s energy is being focused in the direction of 180 and 0 degrees. Equation three reflects this additional factor:

However, as the essence of a wireless handset is portability, it is likely to move around a lot with the user. Therefore, a high gain 5G transmitter would still require a tracking system to ensure that it stays focused directly at the end user’s handset.

User Tracking

One solution for tracking devices could be to employ a high frequency transceiver with a phased array antenna structure. This would act as a typical base station, capable of transmitting and receiving, but an array of hundreds of small scale patch antennas (and some DSP magic) would make it capable of beamforming. This would not only allow the structure to transmit high gain signals but to also steer the beam by changing the relative phase of the output.

However, as this is a technically complex system that has yet to be implemented on such a large scale, the technology is still in its infancy and is currently being trialled in select areas only. Considerable efforts will have to be made to ensure that such a transceiver could operate in a bustling environment where multipath and body-blocking would cause strong interference.

5G in 2019

3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project) is an organisation that was established in 1998 and helped to produce the original standards for 3G. It has since gone on to produce the specs for 4G, LTE and is currently working to achieve a 5G “ready system” in 2020.

With certain service carriers already having released 5G this year in certain parts of America, 2019 will be welcoming numerous 5G handsets from several of the flagships giants like Samsung, LG, Huawei and even Xiaomi – a budget smartphone manufacturer.

As with previous generations though, only limited coverage will be available at first (and at a hefty premium), but in practice, it will be fairly similar to Wi-Fi hot-spotting. A lot of work is still required to overcome the issues as discussed above.

Can the internet of things save the planet? article image

“Only governments can fix the problem of global warming, right?

The massive change in behaviour that we need across the board is only going to happen because governments mandate it. Businesses and individuals will accept this and do what they are told, or will be incentivised to do so. I guess that’s how we tend to think it will play out…”

Our CEO, Nicholas Hill features in Disruption Hub this week.

To read the full article click here.

Cambridge, UK – 7th May 2019 – UK-based engineering and design consultancy, Plextek is launching a new innovation business unit called Ignite Exponential, to help established companies compete with agile and fast moving start-ups that are driving new disruptive technologies.

Ignite Exponential (IEX) aims to bridge the innovation gap faced by market-leading businesses struggling to stay ahead and meet changing customer expectations in a climate of unprecedented uncertainty and aggressive competition. In particular, the rise of new technologies such as Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are dissolving the barriers to entry, enabling the rapid introducton of new product and service offerings and challenging existing business models.

Ignite Exponential will build on the 30 years’ experience Plextek has working at the leading-edge of advanced technologies to help its partners navigate this changing landscape, through strategic innovation, future-focussed marketing, human-centric design and enabling technology.

Alan Cucknell, who has been appointed to head up Ignite Exponential, summarises how IEX will bring a new approach to innovation:

“I’ve spent my career helping global companies to innovate and seen how trying to create non-standard solutions to strategically important problems can lead companies to adopt standard processes, which can lead to standard results! There is no silver bullet for strategic innovation in these increasingly complex times and it is too important to outsource. Instead, we will look to create hybrid, collaborative and cross-functional approaches that harness combined skillsets, tools and experience and help to build internal ownership”.

Alan Cucknell, Head of Ignite Exponential, leading an innovation workshop at Cambridge Network Job Fair
Alan Cucknell, Head of Ignite Exponential, leading an innovation workshop at Cambridge Network Job Fair 2019 (source: www.igniteexponential.com)

Nicholas Hill, CEO of Plextek adds:

“Front end innovation requires different mindsets, skills, processes and tools to downstream engineering. That’s why Ignite Exponential draws on the specialist development processes, systems and capabilities that Plextek is well known for, to create a distinct offering – a front end innovation partner that is agile, multi-disciplined and experienced. While the units will work closely together, the teams, systems, environment and culture are independent, to focus on maximising the impact of our work.”

Together, Ignite Exponential and Plextek will be able to partner with clients from defining innovation strategy through designing purposeful business models, platform and product solutions to developing final products and manufacturing to market.

An alternative is for established players to innovate through acquisition, but this can lead to paying over the odds and result in costly mistakes. “More than ever, innovation will determine the success or failure of established companies over the next decade – it is too important to be left to chance” says Alan Cucknell.

For more information about Ignite Exponential and how they are helping partners navigate this new complex landscape, please visit www.igniteexponential.com

Notes to editors

About Ignite Exponential
Based near Cambridge, UK, Ignite Exponential (IEX) is a multi-disciplinary team which helps established businesses grow strategically in the face of the unprecedented uncertainty and aggressive competition. IEX brings together an unusual combination of hands-on capabilities in developing cutting edge with an expertise and track record in strategic innovation and disruptive design.

For more information, call us on: +44 (0) 1799 533 345 or email: hello@igniteexponential.com or visit: www.igniteexponential.com

 

About Plextek
Based near Cambridge, UK, Plextek designs new products, systems, and services for its clients in a diverse range of industries including defence & security, medical & healthcare, and wireless communications.

Central to its culture is the company’s ability to innovate, taking an idea from concept to market. For more than 25 years the team of consultants, engineers and project managers has turned our clients’ business opportunities into commercial success, designing, manufacturing and supplying leading-edge products. Supported by our network of suppliers, commercial partners and research organisations, Plextek is the trusted partner of choice for more than 300 commercial clients, government agencies, and ambitious start-up companies.

For images, information or interview requests, please contact: Adam Roberts via email: press@plextek.com or call: +44 (0) 1799 533200

Plextek Group celebrates 30 years of creating the future

Our parent company, Plextek Group features in Cambridge Network.

Celebrating 30 years of creating the future, Group Chairman Dr Colin Smithers comments:

“I don’t think we ever thought as far forwards as 30 years but somehow we have arrived and with a great group of creative and capable people spread over multiple organisations, helping well over 500 customer organisations from start-ups to FSE-100 organisations and creating world-beating technologies in multiple markets. We are so proud of our agile approach to business; we will always push the boundaries and impact the future of our technology-driven world.”

Read the full article.